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What is a Fan ?

? Any device that produces a current of air by the movement of broad surfaces can be called a fan.
? Fans fall under the general classification of Fans fall under the general classification of “turbomachinery” and have a rotating impeller at least partially encased in a stationary housing.
? Fans are similar in many respects to pumps. Both are turbomachines that transfer energy to a flowing fluid. It is easy to distinguish between fans and pumps: pumps handle liquids; fans handle gasses.
? Broadly speaking, the function of a fan is to propel, displace, or move air or gas.

Fan Types

Fans are classified according to the direction of flow through the ventilator impeller:

? Axial Flow Fan: Axial Flow: Air flows through the impeller parallel to and at a Air flows through the impeller parallel to, and at a constant distance from the fan axis. The pressure rise is provided by the direct action of the blower blades
? Centrifugal or radial flow Fan: Air enters parallel to the axis of the fan and turns through 90 degrees and is discharged radially through the fan blades. The blade force is tangential causing the air to spin with the blades and the main pressure is attributed to this centrifugal force
? Mixed flow Fan: Air enters parallel to the axis of the fan and turns through an angle which may range from 300 to 900 g yg . The p py ressure rise is partially by direct blade action and partially by centrifugal action
? Cross Flow Fan: air enters the ventilator impeller at one part of the outer periphery flows inward and exits at another part of the outer fan periphery.

Applications of Centrifugal Fans:

• Air Fan
• Scanner Air Fan
• Booster Air Fan
• Burner Air Fan
• Degasser Blower Degasser Blower
• Combustion Air Fan
• Oil Vapour Exhaust Fan
• Purge Gas Blowers
• Inline Fans
• Supply Air Fan
• Exhaust Air Fan Exhaust Air Fan
• Ventilation Fan
• Radial Blowers
• Turbo Blowers (Centrifugal)
• FD Fan
• ID Fan
• In-series Blowers
• Igniter Air Fan
• Seal Air Fan

Fan / Blower Blade Types:

? Impeller fan blades are manufactured manufactured either laminar laminar (flat, constant constant thickness) or aerofoil shape and generally hollow
? Aerofoil blades have greater efficiencies (up to 90%) compared to constant constant thickness thickness blades, with the advantages advantages of efficiency efficiency spread over the characteristic and lower noise generation

Blower Types:

? Centrifugal blowers typically operate against pressures of 0.35 to 0.70 kg/cm2, but can achieve much higher pressures
? Also used to produce negative pressures for industrial vacuum systems
? Major types are; centrifugal blower and positive-displacement blower
? The impeller is typically gear-driven and rotates as fast as 15,000 rpm
? Efficiency Efficiency drops with multi-staging staging due to the path taken from stage to stage
? One characteristic is that airflow tends to drop drastically as system pressure increases
? Canada Blower Positive blowers have rotors, which "trap" air and push it through housing.
? Positive-displacement blowers provide a constant volume of air even if the system pressure pressure varies. They are especially especially suitable suitable for ventilation applications prone to clogging,
? They turn much slower than centrifugal blowers (e.g. 3600 rpm), and are often belt driven to facilitate speed changes

Merits of Axial and Centrifugal Fans:

? Axial fans offer better efficiency over a wider range of duties whereas Axial fans offer better efficiency over a wider range of duties whereas the centrifugal fans can have a higher efficiency, albeit over a smaller range, on a single performance curve.
? The performance of a single speed axial fan can be altered simply by adjustment to the impeller blade pitch angle.
? Axial fans are generally considered to be more easily accessible for maintenance.
? Axial fans generally run faster than centrifugal as a consequence are much ii noisier.
? Axial fan impellers are generally manufactured from aluminum in an effort to keep weight to a minimum. As a consequence the potential for effort to keep weight to a minimum. As a consequence the potential for erosion is greater, particularly if there is water in the shaft.
? The light material used in the blades along with the high rotational speed of axial fans make them prone to erosion, and even in good (dry) conditions it is reasonably expected that this erosion will have conditions it is reasonably expected that this erosion will have significantly reduced the fan performance within five years.
? Centrifugal fan impellers are fabricated from plate and are generally hollow. As a consequence when there is water in the fan shaft the nose of the blade is prone to pitting allowing water to enter the hollow section. Sufficient water in this section will cause the blower impeller to become unbalanced, and if allowed to continue it will result in high vibration and eventual failure of the impeller shaft.

Merits of Single and Multiple Fans:

? Single fan installations are generally less expensive than multiple fan installations.
? Multiple fan installations have the advantage of airflow redundancy, i.e. a percentage of airflow will always be available whilst a fan is off line for maintenance or component change out.
? Single fan options do not provide any capacity for redundancy airflow The purchase of fan spares. The purchase of spares (motor impeller shafts bearings motor, impeller, shafts, bearings, blades etc) is good management and should be included as upfront capital expenditure.